Paratubal muscules of eustachian tube

Paratubal musculature Traditionally four muscles are commonly cited as being associated with the eustachian tube: tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, salpingopharyngeus, and tensor tympani. Each has at one time…

eustachian tube parts

eustachian tube parts Cartilage: The contribution of the cartilage to the efficient functioning of the eustachian tube depends on its structure, composition, and attachment to the cranial base and paratubal…

The Middle-ear Cavity

The Middle-ear Cavity: – The structures of the middle ear are situated in a part of the temporal bone of the skull known as the mastoid process. Figure 5: middle…

Anatomy of Middle-ear

The Anatomy and Functions of the Middle-ear Structures The middle ear consists of three ossicles and the tympanic membrane,which can be considered as either part of the outer or middle…